Metabolomics: The Key to Unraveling the Role of the Microbiome in Visceral Pain Neurotransmission

Frontiers in Neuroscience, Vol. 16 (2022)

Mots clés
Auteurs
  • Adam Shute
  • Department of Medicine, Cumming School of Medicine, Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada
  • Dominique G. Bihan
  • Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada
  • Ian A. Lewis
  • Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada
  • Yasmin Nasser
  • Department of Medicine, Cumming School of Medicine, Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada

Résumé

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), comprising Crohn’s disease and Ulcerative colitis, is a relapsing and remitting disease of the gastrointestinal tract, presenting with chronic inflammation, ulceration, gastrointestinal bleeding, and abdominal pain. Up to 80% of patients suffering from IBD experience acute pain, which dissipates when the underlying inflammation and tissue damage resolves. However, despite achieving endoscopic remission with no signs of ongoing intestinal inflammation or damage, 30–50% of IBD patients in remission experience chronic abdominal pain, suggesting altered sensory neuronal processing in this disorder. Furthermore, effective treatment for chronic pain is limited such that 5–25% of IBD outpatients are treated with narcotics, with associated morbidity and mortality. IBD patients commonly present with substantial alterations to the microbial community structure within the gastrointestinal tract, known as dysbiosis. The same is also true in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a chronic disorder characterized by altered bowel habits and abdominal pain, in the absence of inflammation. An emerging body of literature suggests that the gut microbiome plays an important role in visceral hypersensitivity. Specific microbial metabolites have an intimate relationship with host receptors that are highly expressed on host cell and neurons, suggesting that microbial metabolites play a key role in visceral hypersensitivity. In this review, we will discuss the techniques used to analysis the metabolome, current potential metabolite targets for visceral hypersensitivity, and discuss the current literature that evaluates the role of the post-inflammatory microbiota and metabolites in visceral hypersensitivity.

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