Paternal Methyl Donor Supplementation in Rats Improves Fertility, Physiological Outcomes, Gut Microbial Signatures and Epigenetic Markers Altered by High Fat/High Sucrose Diet

International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Vol. 22 (2021)

Mots clés
Authors
  • Faye Chleilat
  • Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
  • Alana Schick
  • International Microbiome Centre, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 4N1, Canada
  • Julie M. Deleemans
  • Division of Medical Science, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 4N1, Canada
  • Raylene A. Reimer
  • Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada

Résumé

Increased consumption of high fat/sucrose (HF/S) diets has contributed to rising rates of obesity and its co-morbidities globally, while also negatively impacting male reproductive health. Our objective was to examine whether adding a methyl donor cocktail to paternal HF/S diet (HF/S+M) improves health status in fathers and offspring. From 3–12 weeks of age, male Sprague Dawley rats consumed a HF/S or HF/S+M diet. Offspring were followed until 16 weeks of age. Body composition, metabolic markers, gut microbiota, DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) and microRNA expression were measured in fathers and offspring. Compared to HF/S, paternal HF/S+M diet reduced fat mass in offspring (p < 0.005). HF/S+M fathers consumed 16% fewer kcal/day, which persisted in HF/S+M female offspring and was explained in part by changes in serum glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) levels. Compared to HF/S, HF/S+M fathers had a 33% improvement in days until conception and 300% fewer stillbirths. In fathers, adipose tissue DNMT3a and hepatic miR-34a expression were reduced with HF/S+M. Adult male offspring showed upregulated miR-24, -33, -122a and -143 expression while females exhibited downregulated miR-33 expression. Fathers and offspring presented differences in gut microbial signatures. Supplementing a paternal HF/S diet with methyl-donors improved fertility, physiological outcomes, epigenetic and gut microbial signatures intergenerationally.

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