Manitoba Health Research Council

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Projets de recherche récents

Implementing Mental Health Recovery Guidelines Into Services: A Pan Canadian Study

2017/18-2020/21 • $413,906
Implementing Mental Health Recovery Guidelines Into Services: A Pan-Canadian Study (Piat, Briand, Mantler Albert, Doiron, Maillet, et al)Issue to be addressed: The aim of this project is to facilitate system transformation to a mental health recovery perspective by implementing and evaluating...

Building Access to Specialist Care for remote, rural populations through eConsultation (BASE).

2016/17-2019/20 • $350,000
The issue of excessive wait times and inequitable access to specialists is recognized as a high priority for Canadians in general, but particularly those living in rural, remote regions of Canada. There is an opportunity to improve access to specialists across these geographically disadvantaged...

Getting to the Source of Inter-Regional Variation in Patient Flow Performance: A Complex Systems Perspective

2015/16-2018/19 • $400,000
Patient flow – ensuring that patients receive the care they need, when and where they need it – is one of the greatest challenges facing healthcare today. While emergency department (ED) overcrowding is its most recognizable symptom, stagnant flow is widely recognized to be a system problem. Yet...

Partnering Together to Improve Palliative Care in Long Term Care Homes

2015/16-2018/19 • $400,000
Background: Residents living and dying in long term care (LTC) homes represent one of society’s most frail and marginalized populations of older adults. As the population ages, more people will die in LTC homes. In Canada, currently 27% of residents die in LTC, and this rate will rise to 39% by...

Advice Seeking Networks in Residential Long Term Care

2014/15-2017/18 • $450,000
Using the latest innovations and research evidence to care for seniors living in residential long term care (nursing homes) is an important goal that is best achieved when successful innovations and practices can spread throughout the nursing home sector efficiently. However, we know little...

Phase I/II Interventional Clinical Trial of Balloon Venoplasty for Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

2012/13-2016/17 • $3,897,565
Multiple Sclerosis is an autoimmune disease of the brain, optic nerves and spinal cord. Over 60,000 Canadians are affected by this life long, disabling condition. The cause and cure remains unknown. Approximately 50% of MS patients have signs of narrowed or blocked veins in the neck known as...

Supporting decision making for the prevention of chronic diseases and reduction of high health care utilization

2015/16-2016/17 • $144,444
Health policy makers agree that chronic disease prevention is a chief priority; however, the link between how prevention can improve the health of the population and directly enhance health system sustainability has not been substantively applied. ISSUE: The challenge for decision makers is how...

Injecting Evidence into Health Policy Coverage: Working with the Media

2012/13-2015/16 • $397,321
Academics research important policy issues and the media communicate with the public about these issues. Often there is little overlap between what researchers say is the evidence and what the media report. This project attempts to change this. EvidenceNetwork.ca seeks to improve the use of...

Mental Disorders and Treatment Needs among Parents Bereaved by Offspring Sudden Death

2013/14-2015/16 • $134,525
Bereavement following the death of a loved one is a phase of life experienced by almost everyone. It is also a period of vulnerability, with some bereaved persons experiencing considerable emotional difficulties. Our previous study showed that parents who lose a child to suicide are at risk for...

Innate signaling in the role of interleukin-10 in heart health and repair

2013/14-2015/16 • $100,000
Occurrence of heart failure in the survivors of heart attack (Myocardial Infarction, MI) is a common clinical syndrome with a grave prognosis. Because of the loss of the contractile elements due to MI, the heart responds by an increase in its muscle mass as well as by an activation of other...

Regulation of Adenylyl Cyclase Signalling in Pulmonary Artery and Right Ventricle in Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn

2013/14-2015/16 • $100,000
The newborn lung is very sensitive to low levels of oxygen. In infants who do not receive enough oxygen at birth, the low oxygen level causes lung blood vessels to go into spasm. Then blood cannot flow through the lung for gas exchange. This causes the heart to fail. This deadly disease,...

Semaphorin3E as a novel therapeutic target in allergic asthma

2013/14-2015/16 • $100,000
Asthma is chronic inflammation of airways which is widespread worldwide. The most common chronic disease among children, it currently affects 300 million people worldwide with 250,000 annual deaths attributed to the disease. It is also estimated that there may be an additional 100 million more...

Functional changes in host cell regulatory pathways induced by reovirus infection

2013/14-2015/16 • $100,000
We have previously measured several thousand host proteins and determined that a few hundred are up-regulated or down-regulated after cells are infected by reovirus. Our goals in this continuing project are to now determine the functional importance of these proteins. We will also focus more...

MicroRNA-Dependent Regulation in Early Prion-Related Neurodegenerative Disease

2013/14-2015/16 • $99,758
Intense laboratory and clinical research have failed to discover effective treatments to delay the onset or progression of any neurodegenerative conditions, including those caused by infectious prions. Although prion diseases are rare and uniquely infectious, they share many common features on a...

Phospholipid Receptors as Targets for Enhancing Drug Permeability to the Brain

2013/14-2015/16 • $94,376
The treatment of brain related disorders is often hampered by the inability to achieve sufficient concentrations of the drug within the brain. This is due in large part to the restrictive nature of the brain microvessel endothelial cells that form the blood-brain barrier (BBB). My laboratory is...

Understanding youths' attitudes and practices with regard to high-risk behaviors while skiing and snowboarding

2013/14-2015/16 • $60,000
Skiing and snowboarding are popular winter sports that have a high rate of injury. There are additional high-risk behaviors that may increase the risk of injury, such as drinking alcohol or consuming drugs, not wearing a helmet or other protective equipment, or choosing to ski or snowboard in...

Elucidation of the regulatory role of scleraxis in cardiac fibrosis

2012/13-2015/16 • $52,500
When the heart becomes damaged (e.g. heart attack) or must overcome increased resistance to pumping (high blood pressure), it must work harder to maintain its normal output of blood. In response to increased workload, heart cells enlarge in an attempt to compensate. For reasons not fully...

Contribution of Dynein light chain-1 for efficient HIV-1 reverse transcription and the underlying molecular mechanisms

2013/14-2015/16 • $51,001
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) pandemic is a major health problem worldwide. During virus infection, the HIV-1 virus must convert its own RNA into double stranded DNA (a process called reverse transcription) before HIV-1 can replicate in the cell. The HIV-1 has its own protein,...

Aboriginal youth living with HIV: From diagnosis to learning to manage their health and lives

2014/15-2015/16 • $34,527
Receiving a diagnosis of HIV changes your life; learning to cope and adjust to the diagnosis and the early years following can be challenging. Moreover, Aboriginal youth often face these challenges alone due to fear of stigma and discrimination, and they are less likely to access services. If we...

Reducing inequities in access to and use of prenatal care in the Winnipeg Health Region through health system improvement

2012/13-2014/15 • $400,000
Prenatal care has the potential to improve the health of pregnant women and reduce the incidence of poor infant outcomes, and is more likely to be effective if women begin receiving care in the first trimester of pregnancy and continue to receive care throughout pregnancy. Despite the emphasis...

Muscarinic receptor antagonism as a novel mechanism for sensory nerve repair.

2012/13-2014/15 • $111,078
Objective Diabetic sensory neuropathy and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) are neurodegenerative diseases characterized by loss of nerve fibers in the skin. Both diseases cause significant pain and eventually lead to sensory loss. The impact of these diseases on human health is...

Obesity and Development of a Diabetes Mellitus-Like State in Pregnancy: Investigating a Role for Regulation of the Human Placental Growth Hormone Genes

2012/13-2014/15 • $100,977
THE PROBLEM is that 1 in 25 women will develop glucose intolerance, or diabetes mellitus (DM)-like state during pregnancy. This increases the risk to the baby, as well as for obesity and type 2 DM (needing insulin) in later life. WHAT'S GOING ON? There is certainly a genetic component as some...

Oligodendrocyte dysfunction in schizophrenia: mechanism and target of treatment

2012/13-2014/15 • $100,000
Schizophrenia is a complex and severe brain disorder that results in symptoms such as hallucinations, inappropriate emotion, difficultly socializing, inattention, and difficulty with learning and memory. The brain has millions of neurons that communicate with each other and are responsible for...

Role of AKAP121 in cardiac hypertrophy and metabolism

2012/13-2014/15 • $100,000
Stress like high blood pressure makes the heart work harder. Like other muscles, the heart gets bigger to meet the additional demand. At the same time, the heart switches its fuel dependence from fats towards sugars. These changes may be an attempt to reduce the stress and improve heart...

Culturally grounded suicide intervention in Cree Nation communities

2012/13-2014/15 • $97,824
This grant requests support to continue the work of the CIHR-funded Swampy Cree Suicide Prevention Team (2007-2012). The Team includes members of the Swampy Cree Tribal Council communities (eight Northwestern Manitoba communities), university-based investigators and international consultants....

Living well with celiac disease: Improving medical monitoring and self-management of celiac disease

2012/13-2014/15 • $96,872
Celiac disease is a common health problem associated with symptoms such as bloating, diarrhea, weight loss and fatigue. People with celiac disease may also develop anemia and have a greater risk for osteoporosis and some types of cancer. The only treatment is self-management with a lifelong...

Development and Testing of a Question Prompt Sheet for Family Caregivers of Older Adults with Dementia in Long-Term Care.

2012/13-2014/15 • $66,576
The goal of this study is to develop a booklet aimed at facilitating communication between family caregivers and health care providers concerning the end of life care of nursing home residents with dementia. The specific aims of the study are: 1) to describe the information needs of family...

Identifying demographic, epidemiologic, clinical outcome and health care utilization trends in Canadians with chronic hepatitis C viral infections over the past two decades.

2013/14-2014/15 • $59,555
Hepatitis C generated intensive scientific, clinical and public interest during the past two decades, since the virus was first described by Choo and colleagues in 1989. It is estimated that 170 million people are infected worldwide, and 3 to 4 million persons are newly infected each year. In...

The epidemiology of resilience following child maltreatment: An examination of protective factors across the lifespan.

2012/13-2014/15 • $46,354
To date, child maltreatment research has focused mainly on risk factors and poor outcomes with fewer studies examining resilience following child maltreatment and protective factors associated with mental health (e.g., absence of mental disorders and high quality of life). Resilience is...

Hepatitis B virus X protein activates NF-kB pathway by promoting nuclear localization of Rel protein p65 in liver cells.

2013/14-2014/15 • $8,750
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections results in approximately one million deaths per year caused by liver diseases. Many studies have shown that HBV X (HBx) protein is important for viral replication, subversion of host cell processes, such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) pathway, and...

Emotional Intelligence in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

2013/14-2014/15 • $8,750
People with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) struggle with social situations. When they fail to fit in, they may feel poorly about themselves and this influences their overall personal health. Emotional intelligence (EI) is related to our social experiences and as a result, it could be used to...

Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect: A Meta-Analysis

2013/14-2014/15 • $8,750
The purpose of the present study is to combine the research findings from all the studies that have examined the efficacy of prevention interventions for child abuse and neglect. As well, this study will examine what factors or components of these prevention interventions make some more...

Understanding telomerase function: modulation of a stable G-quadruplex structure in human telomerase RNA by the helicase RHAU.

2011/12-2013/14 • $100,000
Human chromosome ends are protected from damage by a stretch of repetitive DNA sequences known as telomeres. In healthy mortal cells, telomere DNA is gradually shortened during successive rounds of replication as a cell ages, and therefore serves as a molecular clock. In cancerous cells the...

Rabies virus-induced injury to neuronal processes: role of oxidative stress

2011/12-2013/14 • $100,000
Rabies is a serious problem in Canadian wildlife and it is an important public health problem in developing countries. Human rabies is almost invariably fatal. An understanding of how rabies virus causes disease will be helpful in developing new strategies for the prevention and treatment of...

Investigating the role played by the Steroid receptor RNA activator bi-faceted system in breast tumor progression.

2011/12-2013/14 • $98,574
In 2011, 23,000 Canadian women will be diagnosed with breast cancer and 5,300 will die from this disease. Increasing our knowledge of the mechanisms controlling the different steps of the disease is a priority to save these women. When breast cancer appears, cells divide abnormally but do not...

Target identification of novel growth inhibitors for the multiple antibiotic resistant Burkholderia cenocepacia through genome-wide conditional growth expression

2011/12-2013/14 • $91,624
The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is a group of multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria that infect cystic fibrosis patients. Once established, the infection is virtually impossible to eradicate. For this reason, new and more effective antibiotics are urgently needed. Antibiotics work by...

Manitoba SPOR Network in Primary and Integrated Health Care Innovations-Development Funds Proposal

2013/14 • $75,000
This proposal describes the first step in developing a research network as part of the CIHR SPOR initiative: 'Network in Primary and Integrated Health Care Innovations'. The Manitoba SPOR Network (MSN) is designed to conduct research and implement new practices to help individuals with high and...

The Analysis of Patient-Reported Outcome Measures: Statistical Methods for Response Shift (PROM-RS)

2012/13-2013/14 • $69,716
Self-reported measures of health outcomes like quality of life, satisfaction with treatment, functional ability, and disease symptoms, can contribute to improved decision making in a patient-centred healthcare system. Insights into patients' own experiences with their health can be obtained by...

Skeletal Safety of Chronic Proton Pump Inhibitor Use: Evaluating Bone Density, Structure and Strength

2013/14 • $50,027
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used for the treatment and prevention of gastroesophageal reflux disease and ulcer disease, and are among the most commonly prescribed drugs in all of medicine. Recent studies have suggested that the chronic use of PPIs may significantly increase the risk...

Bringing of innate and adaptive immunity in chlamydial Infection

2012/13-2013/14 • $48,276
Chlamydiae are globally important human bacterial pathogens that cause infectious diseases with serious sequelae. The lack of a clear understanding of the mechanisms of protective/ pathological reactions has been a major obstacle for the rational development of a vaccine. We recently...

Aboriginal Youth Mentorship Program for increasing Physical Activity in Youth in Northern Aboriginal Communities

2013/14 • $41,010
Aboriginal youth represent a significant and growing population in Canada and have much to offer in terms of their contributions to their own health and the health and wellness of others. At the same time, Aboriginal youth are at a greater risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and obesity than...

Measuring physicians' preferences regarding work and life in rural and remote regions for recruitment and retention policies

2011/12-2013/14 • $39,744
The aim of this project is to collect information from physicians in Manitoba on their preferences for working and living in rural and remote regions and the work/life balance they aim to achieve. All physicians in Manitoba will be asked to fill out a questionnaire that will collect three sets...

Effects of dietary essential fatty acids on octadecanoid production and biological actions in obesity-induced inflammation: implications for dietary requirements

2013/14 • $25,000
There is much controversy surrounding the health effects and requirements for essential dietary fats. One of the most important ways that fats affect health and disease is by being converted in the body to molecules called oxylipins. The oxylipins are made from essential fats consumed in the...

Inhibitory effects and mechanisms of innate defence regulator peptides in inflammatory arthritis

2013/14 • $25,000
Arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by cartilage and bone destruction. Current treatment options for inflammatory arthritis inhibit critical molecules that are important in both inflammation and in efficient immune functioning. Thus, these therapies often result in patients...

Regulation of nuclear protein import in cardiovascular disease states

2013/14 • $25,000
All cells must respond and adapt to a changing environment. Each cell must sense what is changing and then make appropriate alterations to maintain function and viability. Most cells in the body contain a nucleus. The nucleus is the storehouse in the cell for its genetic material (DNA). It is...

Regulation of Anti-Leishmania Immunity by CD3+CD4-CD8- (Double Negative) T Cells.

2012/13-2013/14 • $23,334
Leishmaniases are parasitic diseases that affect both humans and animals. It is caused by protozoan parasite belonging to the genus Leishmania. The disease is endemic in 88 countries and it is currently estimated by WHO that about 12 million people worldwide are afflicted with the disease with...

Psychosocial Predictors of Health and Survival in Late Life

2013/14 • $15,000
Health is influenced by many psychosocial variables, including the way individuals psychologically appraise life events. For example, appraising events as controllable has salutary effects on health. Because individuals are threatened by precipitous, uncontrollable life challenges as they age,...

Injecting Evidence into Health Policy Coverage: "KT'ing" the Mythbusters

2010/11-2012/13 • $314,773
Academics research important policy issues and the media communicate with the public about these issues. Often there is little overlap between what researchers say is the evidence and what the media report. Our proposal will attempt to change this. This project will partner researchers with...

Exploring the role of established and non-traditional risk factors on diabetes and cardiovascular disease among a Manitoba First Nation population.

2011/12-2012/13 • $262,092
The prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease among Canada's First Nation populations is, for the most part, greater than among the general Canadian population. Both of these related conditions are the cause of decreased quality of life, increased morbidity and premature mortality. The...

Determinants of Genome Stability and Drug Target Discovery

2010/11-2012/13 • $60,000
Genome instability is a major initiating factor that predisposes individuals to cancer. It arises through two different mechanisms; A) CIN - chromosomes instability which defines an increase in the rate at which chromosomes are gained or lost, and, B) MIN - microsatellite instability which...

A pilot randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of unfractionated Heparin in septic shock

2011/12-2012/13 • $50,000
Life-threatening infections account for 10% of all intensive care unit admissions and constitute the second more frequent cause of death in the ICU after heart diseases. The cause of death in patients with life-threatening infections is often multi-organ failure that is mediated by severe...

Molecular Determinants Of Apoptosis In The Heart

2011/12-2012/13 • $17,500
Despite the substantial progress that has been made during the past two decades in heart research, cardiac disease still represents a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in North America. When oxygen delivery to the heart muscle is decreased such as seen during heart attack or...

The Meaning of Control and its Perceived Influence on Health and Illness

2011/12-2012/13 • $7,001
The diabetes epidemic among Canadian First Nation (FN) populations continues with FN people having diabetes prevalence 2 to 5 times higher than non-FN Canadians. Although much research on prevention and treatment has been undertaken, diabetes and diabetes complications remain major contributors...

A systems biology based approach to the study of lymphoctye migration.

2010/11-2011/12 • $119,284
Lymphocytes are important in fighting infections and cancers. In order to do this the cells travel in the blood and move through the tissues of the body to sites of injury and infection. However, in some cases such as arthritis and transplantation the immune cells can cause unwanted damage. An...

Structure-function studies of netrin-1

2010/11-2011/12 • $105,528
The human body contains billions of cells, most of which have highly specialized functions. A major question in biology is how cells become specialized and organize themselves into tissues during development. We know that this process requires cell-cell communication to deliver specific...

NOTCH3 Receptor: a key regulator of human mammary epithelial progenitor cell functions.

2010/11-2011/12 • $102,192
The ability to support multiple pregnancies suggests that breast tissue possess an enormous regenerative capacity, which is due to the special functions of a small population of cells in the breast tissue called stem cells. Unfortunately, alterations to some of the functions of these normal stem...

Subcellular Remodeling in Congestive Heart Failure

2010/11-2011/12 • $100,000
Congestive heart failure is a major health problem which has reached pandemic proportions in the Western world. It is now known that heart failure is associated with elevated plasma levels of several hormones, which produce harmful effects and result in the inability of the heart to pump...

Timing and Position: How a migrating cell knows when to turn.

2010/11-2011/12 • $100,000
Cells move around during development and must arrive at the correct destination at the correct time. Errors result in developmental abnormalities. Metastasis and malignancy in cancer are also the result of inappropriate cell migration behavior. I am trying to understand how a cell knows which...

CD40 signaling and the role of a scaffold protein, JLP in DC maturation and functions

2010/11-2011/12 • $100,000
Induction of proper immune responses against invading bacteria and viruses is vital in clearance of infection. Deregulations of this host defense system account for a large number of immune disorders in Canada (eg. AIDS, cancers, allergy, autoimmune diseases, and graft rejections in...

Functional regulation of pulmonary arterial thromboxane receptor by post-translational modification, in hypoxic persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn

2010/11-2011/12 • $100,000
The newborn lung is very sensitive to low oxygen levels. In the lungs of infants who do not receive sufficient oxygen at birth, low oxygen makes the lung blood vessels go into spasm, so blood cannot flow through the lung for gas exchange. This causes the lethal disease persistent pulmonary...

Preclinical Studies for Treatment of Hydrocephalus

2010/11-2011/12 • $100,000
Hydrocephalus is a common brain disease in which fluid (cerebrospinal fluid or CSF) accumulates inside of the brain thereby causing dysfunction and damage. It may affect infants, children, and adults. The surgical treatment, known as shunting, involves placement of a drain tube in the brain to...

Hepatic contribution to monocyte recruitment and atherogenesis

2010/11-2011/12 • $96,814
Cardiovascular disease due to atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death worldwide. Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory process (vessel injury) in the arteries, eventually leading to the fatal blockage of blood supply to the heart (heart attack). One of the earliest detectable abnormalities is...

Partnership for Ongoing Impact Assessment of Academic Detailing

2010/11-2011/12 • $93,250
'Academic detailing' programs provide independent, evidence-based information to physicians to promote best prescribing practices through one-on-one or small group visits to their offices. This strategy is being used by programs in six provinces. In brief, academic detailing programs aim to...

Investigating altered PCSK6 activity in ovarian cancer

2010/11-2011/12 • $91,139
In order for cells to function correctly many cellular proteins need to be activated by enzymes called proprotein convertases. Too little or too much enzyme can change the levels of the active protein that can lead to abnormal cellular responses. We are examining how changes in the levels of the...

Host defense against chlamydial lung infection: Interation between natural killer T cell (NKT) and dendritic cell (DC) subsets

2010/11-2011/12 • $85,765
Chlamydiae are globally important human bacterial pathogens that cause infectious diseases with serious sequelae. The lack of a clear understanding of the mechanisms of protective/ pathological reactions has been a major obstacle for the development of a vaccine. We recently demonstrated that...

Protective signaling by PPARs in cardiac hypertrophy

2010/11-2011/12 • $75,499
Many conditions such as hypertension, heart attack, or valve disease, increase the risk of heart failure. An intermediate step between these conditions and heart failure is cardiac hypertrophy, or abnormal growth of the heart. Finding effective ways to avert hypertrophy has thus emerged as a top...

Brainstem and spinal cord mechanisms for control of locomotion

2010/11-2011/12 • $63,598
According to the Canadian Paraplegic Association, 35 persons/million or 1,050/year in Canada suffer spinal cord injuries. Approximately 36,000 Canadians are currently living with spinal cord injury. A major goal for spinal cord injury research is the restoration of locomotion. My research...

Assessing the Relevance of the Patient Dignity Inventory in Identifying Distress and Influencing Clinical Care in Palliative Care

2010/11-2011/12 • $55,908
This project is intended to demonstrate the ability of a novel psychometric, coined the Patient Dignity Inventory (PDI), to identity and begin to address distress in palliative care. The aims of this study are as follows: 1) to examine and compare the prevalence of distress across inpatient and...

Youth's Voices: Their Lives and Experiences of Living with an Anxiety Disorder

2011/12 • $25,000
Anxiety disorders are one of the most prevalent, distressing, and disabling of psychiatric disorders in youth. If left untreated, anxiety disorders put youth at risk for major depression, adult anxiety disorders, substance abuse, and poor physical health in later life. Although research...

Successful Aging of Older Canadian Males: The Manitoba Follow-up Study.

2010/11 • $94,653
For the past sixty years, the Manitoba Follow-up Study (MFUS) has documented the health and illness of 3,983 originally healthy young men through regular contact and routine medical examinations. MFUS members, living all across Canada, have also contributed data on smoking, physical activity,...

Impact of long-term consumption of high protein diets on renal health, hypertension, glucose handling and adipose metabolism in obesity - implications for dietary reference intakes

2010/11 • $52,562
With more than half of the Canadian population being overweight, the incentive to use high protein diets for weight loss is substantial. However, although the dietary recommendations for Canadians appear to condone high protein diets, the committee that wrote these recommendations stated that...

Mechanism of loss of vasodilation response to insulin in type 2 diabetes

2010/11 • $45,726
Hormones released in response to a meal result in rapid glucose uptake into skeletal muscle. This response includes dilation of blood vessels in skeletal muscle that allows increased delivery of glucose to the muscle. We have recently discovered that the selective uptake of glucose into skeletal...

Nucleosomal response and immediate early gene expression

2010/11 • $35,273
Our genetic material, DNA, is bound to proteins called histones which package the DNA. Modifications of the histones decide whether packaging of the DNA is "loose" allowing genes to be expressed or "compact" to silence the expression of genes. Dr. Davie's research team is investigating the...

The S100A8/A9-RAGE Axis in Airway Inflammation, Hyperresponsiveness, and Remodeling

2010/11 • $28,390
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease that affects ~12% of children and ~6% of adults in Canada where disease occurrence has nearly doubled in the past two decades. In most patients symptoms can be controlled by common therapies such as steroids. However, 15% of patients are...

The effects of specific dietary fatty acids on cardiovascular health

2010/11 • $28,262
Blockages in the arteries are the primary cause of both stroke and heart disease, the leading causes of death and disability in the world today. The more that we can understand about how the vessels get blocked, the better we will be able to treat, prevent and/or delay their occurrence. Recent...

Systemic host protein changes and requirements for Influenza virus infection

2010/11 • $26,624
Respiratory diseases are one of the leading causes of disease and mortality, with several classes of viruses directly responsible for millions of childhood deaths annually. Infections with these types of agents also appear to be a primary cause of childhood asthma. In addition to the enormous...

A new strategy for treatment and study of immune mechanisms in inflammatory bowel disease - Novel vaccines down-regulate pathogenic cytokines in murine colitis

2010/11 • $25,000
Inflammatory bowel disease is considered as an autoimmune disease, induced by over-production of some immune mediators. Currently, monoclonal antibodies against these mediators have been used to neutralise the mediators for the treatment of the disease. This therapy has been successful...

Effects and mechanistic aspects of ethanol on postnatal glucose metabolism in offspring

2010/11 • $25,000
There has been a dramatic increase in the number of people suffering from diabetes particularly in aboriginal populations and, as a consequence, an increased strain on health care resources. Many factors may contribute to this increase, but there is more and more evidence that maternal factors...

Testing the demyelination hypothesis of schizophrenia

2010/11 • $25,000
Schizophrenia is a complex and severe brain disorder characterized by disturbances of perception, emotion, social functioning, and cognition. This disease affects about ~0.5% to 1% of the population worldwide. Current studies suggest that abnormalities in myelin, an electrically-insulating...

Preclinical evaluation of aminoglycoside antibiotics-derived amphiphiles (AADAs)

2010/11 • $25,000
Aminoglycoside antibiotics have been used clinically for decades as potent antimicrobial agents to fight bacterial infections. Although aminoglycosides exhibit potent bactericidal activity, their widespread use has been compromised by toxicity and resistance. The rapid emergence of...

Determining the role of Serpins in HIV-resistance.

2010/11 • $25,000
HIV-1 infects over 40 million people worldwide, with over 60 million individuals infected or dead since the 1980's. Despite the enormous effort on preventative measures the pandemic continues to spread with more than 4 million new HIV-1 infections per year. It is widely accepted that the most...

Towards elucidation of the active state structures of beta2-adrenergic receptor

2010/11 • $24,887
Heart disease is the leading cause of death and illness in North America. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are proteins, which sense biological signals and are present on the surface of the cells. The Beta2-adrenergic receptor (B2-AR) is a well studied member of this family. It mediates...

Role of xenin in the regulation of energy balance

2010/11 • $23,942
Obesity is a significant risk factor for several medical problems including diabetes and heart diseases, and therefore mortality. Although the cause of obesity is unclear, the brain areas called hypothalamus and brainstem play a critical role in the regulation of food intake and body weight....

Mechanism for glycated LDL-induced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 production in vascular cells and diabetic animal models

2010/11 • $21,930
The risk of cardiovascular disease is 2-4-fold greater in diabetes than in non-diabetic individuals. Functional impairment of vascular cells contributes to the development of cardiovascular diseases in diabetes. Increased levels of sugar (mainly glucose) and lipids in blood are two hallmarks of...

Role of intracellular fatty acid binding protein in oxidative stress

2010/11 • $19,946
The liver is responsible for metabolizing many foreign substances such as drugs and toxins. Metabolism of some drugs leads to release of free radicals. This may normally be encountered when using chemotherapeutic agents for combating cancer or other diseases. In cases of drug overdose, such as...

Military Personnel with PTSD: functional MRI brain imaging, psychotherapy, and emotional responses

2010/11 • $18,489
Military personnel are returning to Canada after experiencing significant trauma (e.g., combat, witnessing death). In some personnel, these occupational hazards result in post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Current treatments are only partially effective. A better understanding of the brain's...

Natural killer cell activity in the enhanced resistance to HCV infection observed in Aboriginal peoples.

2010/11 • $5,437
Chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the leading indication for liver transplant globally and is largely responsible for the increased incidence in liver cancer in North America. In contrast to the 70-90% rate of HCV chronicity reported globally, Canadian Aboriginals have significantly...

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