A Study of the Radiation Tolerance of CVD Diamond to 70 MeV Protons, Fast Neutrons and 200 MeV Pions

Sensors, Vol. 20 (2020)

Keywords
Authors
  • Lukas Bäni
  • Department of Physics, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland
  • Andreas Alexopoulos
  • CERN, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
  • Marina Artuso
  • Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA
  • Felix Bachmair
  • Department of Physics, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland
  • Marcin Ryszard Bartosik
  • CERN, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
  • Helge Christoph Beck
  • Institute of Physics, Universität Göttingen, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany
  • Vincenzo Bellini
  • Department of Physics and Astronomy, INFN/University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
  • Vladimir Belyaev
  • MEPHI Institute, 115409 Moscow, Russia
  • Benjamin Bentele
  • Physics Department, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
  • Alexandre Bes
  • LPSC-Grenoble, 38026 Grenoble, France
  • Jean-Marie Brom
  • IPHC, F-67000 Strasbourg, France
  • Gabriele Chiodini
  • INFN-Lecce, 73100 Lecce, Italy
  • Dominik Chren
  • Department of Physics, Czech Technical University, 166 29 Prague, Czech Republic
  • Vladimir Cindro
  • Department of Physics, Jožef Stefan Institute, University of Ljubljana, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • Gilles Claus
  • IPHC, F-67000 Strasbourg, France
  • Johann Collot
  • LPSC-Grenoble, 38026 Grenoble, France
  • John Cumalat
  • Physics Department, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
  • Sébastien Curtoni
  • LPSC-Grenoble, 38026 Grenoble, France
  • Anne Evelyn Dabrowski
  • CERN, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
  • Raffaello D’Alessandro
  • Department of Physics and Astronomy, INFN/University of Florence, 50145 Florence, Italy
  • Denis Dauvergne
  • LPSC-Grenoble, 38026 Grenoble, France
  • Wim De Boer
  • Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universität Karlsruhe, D-76049 Karlsruhe, Germany
  • Christian Dorfer
  • Department of Physics, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland
  • Marc Dünser
  • CERN, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
  • Gerald Eigen
  • Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, 5007 Bergen, Norway
  • Vladimir Eremin
  • Ioffe Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg, Russia
  • Jacopo Forneris
  • Dipartimento di Fisica, University of Torino, 10125 Torino, Italy
  • Laurent Gallin-Martel
  • LPSC-Grenoble, 38026 Grenoble, France
  • Marie-Laure Gallin-Martel
  • LPSC-Grenoble, 38026 Grenoble, France
  • Kock Kiam Gan
  • Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
  • Martin Gastal
  • CERN, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
  • Abderrahman Ghimouz
  • LPSC-Grenoble, 38026 Grenoble, France
  • Mathieu Goffe
  • IPHC, F-67000 Strasbourg, France
  • Joel Goldstein
  • School of Physics, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TL, UK
  • Alexander Golubev
  • ITEP, 117218 Moscow, Russia
  • Andrej Gorišek
  • Department of Physics, Jožef Stefan Institute, University of Ljubljana, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • Eugene Grigoriev
  • ITEP, 117218 Moscow, Russia
  • Jörn Grosse-Knetter
  • Institute of Physics, Universität Göttingen, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany
  • Aidan Grummer
  • Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
  • Bojan Hiti
  • Department of Physics, Jožef Stefan Institute, University of Ljubljana, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • Dmitry Hits
  • Department of Physics, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland
  • Martin Hoeferkamp
  • Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
  • Jérôme Hosselet
  • IPHC, F-67000 Strasbourg, France
  • Fabian Hügging
  • Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bonn, 53115 Bonn, Germany
  • Chris Hutson
  • School of Physics, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TL, UK
  • Jens Janssen
  • Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bonn, 53115 Bonn, Germany
  • Harris Kagan
  • Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
  • Keida Kanxheri
  • INFN-Perugia, 06123 Perugia, Italy
  • Richard Kass
  • Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
  • Mladen Kis
  • GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt, Germany
  • Gregor Kramberger
  • Department of Physics, Jožef Stefan Institute, University of Ljubljana, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • Sergey Kuleshov
  • ITEP, 117218 Moscow, Russia
  • Ana Lacoste
  • LPSC-Grenoble, 38026 Grenoble, France
  • Stefano Lagomarsino
  • Department of Physics and Astronomy, INFN/University of Florence, 50145 Florence, Italy
  • Alessandro Lo Giudice
  • Dipartimento di Fisica, University of Torino, 10125 Torino, Italy
  • Ivan López Paz
  • Manchester School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
  • Eric Lukosi
  • Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
  • Chaker Maazouzi
  • IPHC, F-67000 Strasbourg, France
  • Igor Mandić
  • Department of Physics, Jožef Stefan Institute, University of Ljubljana, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • Sara Marcatili
  • LPSC-Grenoble, 38026 Grenoble, France
  • Alysia Marino
  • Physics Department, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
  • Cédric Mathieu
  • IPHC, F-67000 Strasbourg, France
  • Mauro Menichelli
  • INFN-Perugia, 06123 Perugia, Italy
  • Marko Mikuž
  • Department of Physics, Jožef Stefan Institute, University of Ljubljana, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • Arianna Morozzi
  • INFN-Perugia, 06123 Perugia, Italy
  • Francesco Moscatelli
  • INFN-Perugia, 06123 Perugia, Italy
  • Joshua Moss
  • Physics Faculty, California State University, Sacramento, CA 95819, USA
  • Raymond Mountain
  • Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA
  • Alexander Oh
  • Manchester School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
  • Paolo Olivero
  • Dipartimento di Fisica, University of Torino, 10125 Torino, Italy
  • Daniele Passeri
  • INFN-Perugia, 06123 Perugia, Italy
  • Heinz Pernegger
  • CERN, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
  • Roberto Perrino
  • INFN-Lecce, 73100 Lecce, Italy
  • Federico Picollo
  • Dipartimento di Fisica, University of Torino, 10125 Torino, Italy
  • Michal Pomorski
  • CEA-LIST Technologies Avancées, F91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • Renato Potenza
  • Department of Physics and Astronomy, INFN/University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
  • Arnulf Quadt
  • Institute of Physics, Universität Göttingen, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany
  • Fatah Rarbi
  • LPSC-Grenoble, 38026 Grenoble, France
  • Alessandro Re
  • Dipartimento di Fisica, University of Torino, 10125 Torino, Italy
  • Michael Reichmann
  • Department of Physics, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland
  • Shaun Roe
  • CERN, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
  • Olivier Rossetto
  • LPSC-Grenoble, 38026 Grenoble, France
  • Diego Alejandro Sanz Becerra
  • Department of Physics, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland
  • Christian J. Schmidt
  • GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt, Germany
  • Stephen Schnetzer
  • Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
  • Silvio Sciortino
  • Department of Physics and Astronomy, INFN/University of Florence, 50145 Florence, Italy
  • Andrea Scorzoni
  • INFN-Perugia, 06123 Perugia, Italy
  • Sally Seidel
  • Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
  • Leonello Servoli
  • INFN-Perugia, 06123 Perugia, Italy
  • Dale Shane Smith
  • Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
  • Bruno Sopko
  • Department of Physics, Czech Technical University, 166 29 Prague, Czech Republic
  • Vit Sopko
  • Department of Physics, Czech Technical University, 166 29 Prague, Czech Republic
  • Stefania Spagnolo
  • INFN-Lecce, 73100 Lecce, Italy
  • Stefan Spanier
  • Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
  • Kevin Stenson
  • Physics Department, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
  • Robert Stone
  • Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
  • Bjarne Stugu
  • Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, 5007 Bergen, Norway
  • Concetta Sutera
  • Department of Physics and Astronomy, INFN/University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
  • Michael Traeger
  • GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt, Germany
  • William Trischuk
  • Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A7, Canada
  • Marco Truccato
  • Dipartimento di Fisica, University of Torino, 10125 Torino, Italy
  • Cristina Tuvè
  • Department of Physics and Astronomy, INFN/University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
  • Jaap Velthuis
  • School of Physics, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TL, UK
  • Stephen Wagner
  • Physics Department, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
  • Rainer Wallny
  • Department of Physics, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland
  • Jianchun Wang
  • Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA
  • Norbert Wermes
  • Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bonn, 53115 Bonn, Germany
  • Jayashani Wickramasinghe
  • Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
  • Mahfoud Yamouni
  • LPSC-Grenoble, 38026 Grenoble, France
  • Justas Zalieckas
  • Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, 5007 Bergen, Norway
  • Marko Zavrtanik
  • Department of Physics, Jožef Stefan Institute, University of Ljubljana, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • Kazuhiko Hara
  • Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571, Japan
  • Yoichi Ikegami
  • KEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801, Japan
  • Osamu Jinnouchi
  • School of Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551, Japan
  • Takashi Kohriki
  • KEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801, Japan
  • Shingo Mitsui
  • Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571, Japan
  • Ryo Nagai
  • School of Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551, Japan
  • Susumu Terada
  • KEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801, Japan
  • Yoshinobu Unno
  • KEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801, Japan

Abstract

We measured the radiation tolerance of commercially available diamonds grown by the Chemical Vapor Deposition process by measuring the charge created by a 120 GeV hadron beam in a 50 μm pitch strip detector fabricated on each diamond sample before and after irradiation. We irradiated one group of samples with 70 MeV protons, a second group of samples with fast reactor neutrons (defined as energy greater than 0.1 MeV), and a third group of samples with 200 MeV pions, in steps, to (8.8±0.9) × 1015 protons/cm2, (1.43±0.14) × 1016 neutrons/cm2, and (6.5±1.4) × 1014 pions/cm2, respectively. By observing the charge induced due to the separation of electron–hole pairs created by the passage of the hadron beam through each sample, on an event-by-event basis, as a function of irradiation fluence, we conclude all datasets can be described by a first-order damage equation and independently calculate the damage constant for 70 MeV protons, fast reactor neutrons, and 200 MeV pions. We find the damage constant for diamond irradiated with 70 MeV protons to be 1.62±0.07(stat)±0.16(syst)× 10−18 cm2/(p μm), the damage constant for diamond irradiated with fast reactor neutrons to be 2.65±0.13(stat)±0.18(syst)× 10−18 cm2/(n μm), and the damage constant for diamond irradiated with 200 MeV pions to be 2.0±0.2(stat)±0.5(syst)× 10−18 cm2/(π μm). The damage constants from this measurement were analyzed together with our previously published 24 GeV proton irradiation and 800 MeV proton irradiation damage constant data to derive the first comprehensive set of relative damage constants for Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond. We find 70 MeV protons are 2.60 ± 0.29 times more damaging than 24 GeV protons, fast reactor neutrons are 4.3 ± 0.4 times more damaging than 24 GeV protons, and 200 MeV pions are 3.2 ± 0.8 more damaging than 24 GeV protons. We also observe the measured data can be described by a universal damage curve for all proton, neutron, and pion irradiations we performed of Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond. Finally, we confirm the spatial uniformity of the collected charge increases with fluence for polycrystalline Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond, and this effect can also be described by a universal curve.

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