Nawar Malhis and 2 others.
Information on protein sequence variability and conservation can be leveraged to identify functionally important regions. Here, the authors develop new conservation measures that exploit taxonomy distances and LIST, a tool for predicting deleteriousness of human variants.
J. K. Hefendehl and 5 others.
In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), neural hyperactivity has been shown to occur in the regions surrounding Aβ plaques. Here, the authors use in vivotwo-photon imaging in mouse models of AD and report abnormal glutamate dynamics in the vicinity of plaques which can be partially restored via GLT-1 upregulation through...
Sasha Wagner and 6 others.
Rivers are thought to be the largest source of the recalcitrant and abundant black carbon in the ocean. Here, Wagner and colleagues find distinct pools of black carbon between rivers and the open ocean, challenging the long-held assumption that marine black carbon is of terrestrial origin.
Ana S. Guerreiro Stucklin and 61 others.
Infant gliomas behave differently to their childhood or adult counterparts. Here, the authors perform a large-scale genetic analysis of these tumours, revealing genetic alterations which may offer therapeutic opportunities.
Patrick S. Tarpey and 31 others.
Chordoma is a rare often incurable malignant bone tumour. Here, the authors investigate driver mutations of sporadic chordoma in 104 cases, revealing duplications in notochordal transcription factor brachyury (T), PI3K signalling mutations, and mutations in LYST, a potential novel cancer gene in chordoma.
Louis-Philippe Bernier and 5 others.
Glucose is the main source of fuel in the brain. Here, the authors show that in the absence of glucose, glutamine is required for microglia to maintain their immune surveillance function.
Ekaterina M. Pärschke and 3 others.
Some iridate compounds such as Sr2IrO4 have electronic and atomic structures similar to quasi-2D copper oxides, raising the prospect of high temperature superconductivity. Here, the authors show that there is significant electron-hole asymmetry in iridates, contrary to expectations from the cuprates.
Cornelius Krull and 10 others.
Polynuclear metal-organic coordination complexes are often inaccessible by traditional synthetic chemistry methods. Here, the authors use on-surface supramolecular chemistry to form a planar trinuclear Fe complex, in which an accumulation of electrons around the positive mixed-valence polynuclear centre suggests a...
A. A LARRY and 2 others.
The present invention provides compositions comprising an anti-angiogenic factor, and a polymeric carrier. Representative examples of anti-antiogenic factors include Anti-Invasive Factor, Retionic acids and derivatives thereof, and taxol. Also provided are methods for embolizing blood vessels, and eliminating biliary,...
Sean D. Workman and 2 others.
Undecaprenyl pyrophosphate phosphatase (UppP) recycles the lipid carrier essential for bacterial cell wall synthesis. Here authors present the crystal structure of UppP from E. coli at 2.0 Å resolution, which sheds light on its phosphatase mechanism and indicates a potential flippase role for UppP.
J. Choi and 15 others.
Magnetic field induced competing phases in high-temperature superconductors provide a testbed for various theoretical scenarios. Here, Choi et al. report evidence of inhomogeneous superconducting state due to the different competition strength between two charge density wave orders in YBa2Cu3O6.67.
Dane Cheasley and 63 others.
Whether mucinous ovarian carcinoma (MOC) arises from cells at the ovary or from metastases from other primary sites is an unanswered question. Here, Cheasley et al perform a genetic analysis of the disease, showing that MOC arises at the ovary.
Kazumi Ozaki and 4 others.
Competition dynamics between early Earth photosynthetic microorganisms are unclear. Here, the authors demonstrate that competition for light and nutrients between oxygenic phototrophs and Fe-based photosynthesizers in surface oceans provides a novel ecophysiological mechanism for the protracted oxygenation of Earth’s atmosphere.
Tomer Shpilka and 13 others.
The mitochondrial network expands to accommodate cell growth, but how scaling occurs is unclear. Here, the authors show in C. elegans that ATFS-1 mitochondrial import is reduced when mitochondrial proteins are highly expressed, activating the unfolded protein response and causing expansion.
Tengfei Li and 5 others.
Photoelectrochemical water splitting is a promising method for H2 fuel production, but the O2 by-product generated has little economic value. Here, Berlinguette and colleagues demonstrate that BiVO4 photoanodes immersed in organic media can instead perform valuable alcohol oxidation and C–H functionalization reactions.
Jackie Lighten and 9 others.
Host-parasite coevolution can lead to arms races favouring novel immunogenetic alleles or the maintenance of diversity in a balanced polymorphism. Here, Lighten et al. combine data on MHC diversity across three guppy species and simulations to show that polymorphisms of immunogenetic supertypes may persist even as...
Harry W. Rathbone and 4 others.
Cryptophytes acquired plastids from red algae but replaced the light-harvesting phycobilisome with a unique cryptophyte antenna. Here via analysis of phycobilisome cryo-EM structures, Rathbone et al. propose that the α subunit of the cryptophyte antenna originated from phycobilisome linker proteins
Cameron W. Kellett and 2 others.
Current models of halogen bonding describe the σ-symmetric component of this interaction but do not contemplate the possibility of π-covalency. Here the authors provide experimental and computational evidence of π-covalency in halogen bonds involving radical cation halogen bond donors.
Sunny Y. Yang and 6 others.
In vivo existence of guanine-rich four-stranded RNA structures (G4-RNAs) has been a matter of debate. Here the authors developed a protocol, G4RP-seq, to capture and identify transcriptome-wide G4-RNA, providing insights into the formation of transient G4-RNA in live human cells.
Jaeyong Lee and 10 others.
The SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) is one of two cysteine proteases essential for viral replication. Here, the authors determine the crystal structure of an Mpro acyl intermediate with its native C-terminal autocleavage sequence and the structure of a product bound active site mutant (C145A), which are of interest for...
Linda Kachuri and 50 others.
The role of impaired lung function in lung cancer etiology is complex due to the relation of cigarette smoking to both conditions. Here, supported by Mendelian randomization analysis the authors find a link between pulmonary function impairment and lung cancer risk beyond smoking, implicating immune-related pathways